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Tuesday, January 21, 2014

Active voice (કર્તરી પ્રયોગ ) and Passive Voice (કર્મણી પ્રયોગ)

Active Voice - Passive Voice
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Voice કુલ બે પ્રકાર ના પ્રયોગો છે.
(1) Active voice અને (2) passive voice.
જેને ગુજરાતીમા અનુંક્રમે આપણે કર્તરી પ્રયોગ અને કર્મની પ્રયોગ તરીકે ઓળખીએ છીએ.

(1)Active voice (કર્તરી પ્રયોગ) :-

જેમાં ક્રિયાનો કરનાર કર્તા મુખ્ય હોય છે. અને કર્તા તથા કર્મ સ્વસ્થાને હોયતો તે વાક્યActive Voice મા છે તેમ કહી શકાય.

e.g  Sanjay plays chess.

(2) Passive Voice (કર્મની પ્રયોગ) :-

જેમાં કર્તા કરતા તેના કર્મને વિશેષ મહત્વ આપવામાં આવે છે.તેથી મૂળ કર્તાને કર્મને સ્થાને મુકવામાં આવેછે.આમ,કર્તા અને કર્મનું સ્થાન બદલાય છે. તેને Passive Voice મા વાક્ય છે તેમ કહી શકાય.

e.g. -> Chess is Played by Sanjay.

● Active Voice નુ passive Voice મા રુપન્તેર :-

Active Voice ની વાક્ય રચનાને Passive Voice માં રૂપાંતર કરતી વખતે કેટલાક ફેરફાર થાય છે.જેને આપણે ઉદાહરણ સાથે સમજીએ.

A.V: Ved        Watches      a movie
         કર્તા           ક્રિયાપદ           કર્મ

P.V: A movie     is watched by Ved
           કર્મ            is    ભૂતકૃદંત  by  કરતા
  
(‘કોણ’ પૂછવાથી જવાબ મળે તેકર્તા અને ‘શું’ તથા ‘કોને’ પૂછવાથી જવાબ મળેતે કર્મ)

આમ, વાક્યનું Active Voice માંથી Passive Voice મા રૂપાંતરકરતી વખતે નીચે પ્રમાણે  ફેરફાર થાય છે.
(1)    વાક્યમા કર્તાનુ સ્થાન કર્મ લે છે.
(2)    વાક્યમાં કર્મનુ સ્થાન કર્તા લે છે.
(3)    કાળપ્રમાણે યોગ્ય સહાયકારક ક્રિયાપદ મુકાય છે.
(4)    ક્રિયાપદનુ ભૂતકૃદંત મુકાય છે.
(5)    વાક્યના અંતે By દ્વારા કર્તા, કર્મનું સ્થાન લે છે.
(6)    જયારે કર્તા કર્મ બને અને કર્મ કર્તા બને છે ત્યારે એકવચન કે બહુવચનના નામ મુજબ સહાયકારક ક્રિયાપદ મુકાય છે.

I - by me        We - by us
You- by you  You - by you
He- by him
She- by her
It- by it           They- by them

Note :-
●       Voice  બદલતી વખતે વાક્યનો કાળ બદલાતો નથી.
●       Passive Voice મા વાક્યમાં ક્રિયાપદનુ ભૂતકૃદંત રૂપ જ વપરાય છે
●     ચાલુ ભવિષ્યકાળ (Future Continuous Tense) તથા તમામ ચાલુ પૂર્ણ કાળ (Perfect Continuous
Tense) ના વાક્યોનું Passive voice  થઈ શકે નહિ.
●    ચાલુંકાલ (Continuous Tense) ના Passive
Voice મા ક્રિયાપદના ભૂતકૃદંતના રૂપની સાથે being વપરાય છે.
●   Passive voice મા મોટા ભાગે ‘by’વપરાય છે, અને
ક્યારેક ‘in’પણ વપરાય છે.

(1) સાદોવર્તમાન કાળ (Simple Present Tense):-

Active voice:- ક્રિયાપદનુ મૂળરૂપ (ક્યારેક –S-કે –es પ્રત્યાય સાથે)

Passive voice:- is / am/ are/ + ક્રિયાપદનુ ભૂતકૃદંત રૂપ

e.g.-> He draws a picture.(Active)
           A picture is drawn by him. (Passive)
     
         -> We hold these meetings in the office.(Active)
            These meetings are held in the office.(Passive)
     
     ->    He drinks water. (Active)
             Water is drunk by him. (Passive)

● વાક્યમાં જયારે કર્તા અથવા કર્મના સ્થાને શબ્દના બદલે phrase હોય ત્યારે તે phrase ન સ્થાન પણ બદલાય છે.

e.g. -> Mr.Sanjay manages a big industrial empire. (Active)
      A big industrial empire is managed by Mr.Sanjay. (Passive)
    ->The entire staff of our office respects Mr.Sathwara(Active)
      Mr.Sathwara is respected by the entire staff of our office. (Passive)

● જયારે કોઈ વાક્યમા ક્રિયાપદ સાથે નામયોગી અવયવ (preposition) જોડાયેલ હોય તો તે વાક્ય નુ Passive મા રૂપાંતર કરતી વખતે preposition  મા કોઈ ફેરફાર થતો નથી.

e.g. -> We object to this proposal. (Active)
      This proposal is objected to by us. (Passive)
    ->A nurse looks after this little girl. (Active)
      This little girl is looked after by a nurse. (Passive)

· નકાર વાક્ય :-

● નકાર વાક્યનુ ‘Passive voice’ મા રૂપાંતર કરતી વખતે ‘do’ કે ‘does’ નીકળી જાય છે.અને સહાય કારક ક્રિયાપદ (am, is, are) સાથે ‘not’ મુકાય છે.

e.g. Sejal does not watch  movies. (Active)
    Movies are not watched by Sejal. (Passive)

·  પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :-

પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય બે પ્રકારના હોય છે,-
(1) Do/Does થી શરૂ થતાં
(2) પ્રશ્નાર્થ સુચક શબ્દથી શરૂ થતા. Do/Does વાળા પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્યનુ Passive voice મા રૂપાંતર કરતી વખતે Do/Does નીકળી જાય છે.અને તેને બદલે to be નુ યોગ્ય રૂપ (am, is, are) વાક્યની શરૂઆત મા મુકાય છે. What,
Why, When, How  વગેરે શબ્દો એમ જ રહે છે.

e.g.-> Do you play cricket ? (Active)
           Is cricket played by you ? (Passive)
    -> When does he complete the home wark? (Active)
          When is the home work completed by him ? (Passive)

(2) સાદો ભૂતકાળ (Simple Past Tense):-

Active Voice:- ક્રિયાપદનુ ભૂતકાળનુ રૂપ
Passive Voice:- was/ were + ક્રિયાપદનુ ભૂતકૃદંત રૂપ

e.g. -> The special commandos surrounded  the building. (Active)
      The building was surrounded by the special commandos. (Passive)
    ->I saw an accident yesterday. (Active)
      An accident was seen by me yesterday. (Passive)
    ->We broke a glass. (Active)
      A glass was broken by us. (Passive)

· નકાર વાક્ય :-

● નકાર વાક્યનુ ‘Passive Voice’ મા રૂપાંતર કરતી વખતે ‘did’ નીકળી જાય છે. અને સહાયકારક ક્રિયાપદ (was/
were) સાથે ‘not’ મુકાય છે.

e.g., Parthi did not complete the project. (Active)
    The project was not completed by Parthi. (Passive)

·  પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :-

->Did he write answers in the classroom ? (Active)
  Were the answers written by him in the classroom ? (Passive)

->Who broke the mirror ? (Active)
  By whom was the mirror broken ?(Passive)

(4) ચાલુવર્તમાન કાળ (Present Continuous Tense):-

Active Voice:  is/ am/ are + વર્તમાનકૃદંત
Passive Voice:  is/ am/ are + being + ભૂતકૃદંત
 
e.g., -> I am eating apples. (Active)
       Apples are being eaten by me. (Passive)
    -> Mr.Shah is teaching English. (Active)
       English is being taught by Mr.Sharma . (Passive)
    ->My mother is preparing food. (Active)
      Food is being prepared by my mother. (Passive)

· નકાર વાક્ય :-

e.g. ->I am not taking lunch. (Active)
     Lunch is not being taken by me. (Passive)
    ->Children are not playing cricket in garden. (Active)
      Cricket is not being played by children in garden. (Passive)

· પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :-

e.g.-> Is he playing cricket in the playground ? (Active)
      Is cricket being played by him in the playground ? (Passive)
    ->Where is he putting his book ? (Active)
      Where is his book being put by him ? (Passive)
     ->Who is teaching you now ? (Active)
       By whom are you being taught now ? (Passive)

(5)ચાલુ ભૂતકાળ (Past Continuous Tense) :-
    
Active voice :  was/ were + વર્તમાનકૃદંત
Passive voice :  was/ were + being + ભૂતકૃદંત
 
e.g. -> Rakesh was eating an apple. (Active)
       An apple was being eaten by Rakesh. (Passive)
    ->The Pupils were learning their lessons. (Active)
      Their lessons were being learnt by the pupils.(Passive)
     ->When I went to home , they were eating Panipuri. (Active)
       When I went to home Panipuri was being eaten. (Passive)

· નકાર વાક્ય :-
e.g.-> I was not preparing food, when he came. (Active)
      Food was not being prepard  by me when he came. (Passive)
    ->They were not drawing the picture. (Active)
      The picture was not being drawn by them. (Passive)

· પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :-

e.g., -> Was she drawing a picture then ? (Active)
       Was a picture being drawn by then. (Passive)
    ->What were you doing there ? (Active)
      What was being done by you there ? (Passive)

(6) પૂર્ણ વર્તમાનકાળ (Present Perfect Tense) :-

Active Voice:- has/ have + ભૂતકૃદંત
Passive voice:- has/ have + been + ભૂતકૃદંત

e.g.-> Bhairav has drawn this picture. (Active)
      This picture has been drawn by Bhairav. (Passive)
    ->I have finished my work now. (Active)
      My work has been finished now. (Passive)
    ->They have taken all the material. (Passive)

· નકાર વાક્ય :

e.g.-> You haven’t finished your work. (Active)
      You work hasn’t been finished by you. (Passive)
    -> Ved hasn’t completed homework.
       Homework hasn’t been completed by Smit.

· પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :-

e.g.-> Have the girls sung the prayers ?
      Have the prayers been sung by the girls ?
    ->Why have you brought only note books?
      Why have only note books been brought by you ?

· પૂર્ણ ભૂતકાળ (Past Perfect Tense) :-

Active voice: had + ભૂતકૃદંત
Passive voice: had + been + ભૂતકૃદંત

e.g.->My brother had taken breakfast before they sang . (Active)
     Breakfast had been taken by my brother before they sang. (Passive)
    ->He had sold the car before we reached. (Active)
     The car had been sold by him before we reached. (Passive)

· નકાર વાક્ય :

e.g. ->The girl had not sold the pane before I went there. (Active)
      The pen had not been sold by the girl before I went there. (Passive)
     ->He had not disclosed the secret before evening. (Active)
       The secret had not been disclosed by him before evening. (Passive)

· પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :

e.g. -> Had he warned the thief before firing the gun ? (Active)
      Had the thief been warned by him before firing the gun ? (Passive)
    ->Who had broken the glass when I went outside ? (Active)
      By whom had the glass been broken when I went outside ?

(8)પૂર્ણ ભવિષ્યકાળ (Future Perfect tense) :-

Active voice : will / shall + have + ભૂતકૃદંત
Passive voice : will / shall + have been + ભૂતકૃદંત

E.g. -> They will have finished the breakfast by eight. (Active)
      They breakfast will have been finished by eight. (Passive)
     ->We shall have withdrawn money from the bank by tomorrow. (Active)
       Money will have been withdrawn from the bank by tomorrow. (Passive)

· નકાર વાક્ય :-

E,g, -> We will haven’t finished the project by five. (Active)
      The project will have not been finished by us by five. (Passive)

· પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :

e.g.->  Will you have signed all the letter before they close the office ? (Active)
       Will all the letters have been signed before the office is closed ? (Passive)

(9) Modal Auxiliaries :
(Can, Could, May, Might, Shall, Should, Will, Would etc.)

Simple Modal Auxiliaries:
(1) Active voice: Auxiliary +  ક્રિયાપદ નુ મૂળરૂપ
   Passive voice: Auxiliary + be + ભૂતકૃદંત

Perfect Modal Auxiliaries
(2) Active voice: Auxiliary +  have + ભૂતકૃદંત
   Passive voice: Auxiliary + have been + ભૂતકૃદંત

e.g. -> The government should deal with the corrupt officials strictly. (Active)
      The corrupt officials should be dealt with strictly. (Passive)
    -> Shital will have finished her home work before 6 O’clock. (Active)
       Shital’s homework will been finished by her before 6’Oclock. (Passive)
· નકાર વાક્ય :-

E.g,. -> He can not have made toys. (Active)
       Toys can not have been made by him. (Passive)
    -> Untill he work hard , he can not achieve success. (Active)
       Untill he work hard, success can not be achieve. (Passive)

· પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય:-

e.g. -> Should we give respect to that person ? (Active)
      Should that person be given respect by us? (Passive)
    ->Who must have built that beautiful building ? (Active)
      By whom must that beautiful building have been built ?(Passive)

(10) Infinitive :-
● Infinitive એટલે to સાથેનુક્રિયાપદ,
ઉદાહરણ તરીકે to err, to help, to complete, to walk વગેરે .
● ‘Adjective’કે ‘Adverb’ પછી infinitive વપરાય ત્યારે
તે  Adjective કે Adverb  ના અર્થ મા ક્રિયાપદ દ્વારા વધરો સૂચવે છે. અને તે Adjective કે Adverb ને qualify કરે છે.

e.g. I am too weak to walk.

અહિયા weak વિશેષણને ‘to walk’ qualify કરે છે.

આ જ પ્રમાણે ‘Noun’ પછી Infinitive વપરાય ત્યારે ‘Noun’ ના અર્થમાં વધારો સૂચવે છે.》તેને qualify કરે છે.

e.g., He has a project to complete.

અહિયા ‘Project’ નામને ‘to complet’ qualify કરે છે.

Infinitive ધરાવતા વાક્યનું Passive voice મા રૂપાંતર કરતા to be + ભૂતકૃદંત વપરાય છે.

e.g.-> I am to finish this work . (Active)
     This work is to be finished by me. (Passive)
    ->We have to finish this project today.(Active)
      This project his to be finished today. (Passive)
    ->Tea is too hot to drink.(Active)
      Tea is too hot to be drunk . (Passive)
    ->It is time to send the telegram to be sent .(Active)
      It is time the telegram to be sent . (Passive)
    ->I expect Mohan to do this. (Active)
      I expect this to be done by Mohan. (Passive)

(11)Imperative  Sentences :- (આજ્ઞારથ વાકયો)

Active voice:- ક્રિયાપદ નુ મૂળરૂપ
Passive Voice :-
Let + કર્મ + be + ભૂતકૃદંત
OR
કર્મ + should + be +ભૂતકૃદંત
OR
You are requested/ordered/advised + to + Sentence

e.g. ->Switch off the light. (Active)
     Let the light be switched off. (Passive)
     OR
     The light should be switched off. (Passive)
     OR
     You are requested to switch off the light. (Passive)

     Sell this old car off. (Active)
     Let this old car be sold off. (Passive)
     OR
     This old car should be sold off. (Passive)
     OR
     You are requested to sell this old car.

(12) Sentences beginning with ‘let’ :-

Active voice :- Let + ………+ ક્રિયાપદનુ મૂળરૂપ
Passive voice :- Let + ……….+ be + ભૂતકૃદંત

e.g.->Let Mr. Sanjay preside over the conference . (Active)
     Let the conference be presided over by Mr.yadav. (Passive)
    ->Let Srinath coach our fast bowlers. (Active)
     Let our fast bowlers be coached by srinath .(Passive)

(13) It is said

e.g. Sugar tastes sweet. (Active)
    It is said sugar tastes sweet. (Passive)

Passive Voice to Active Voice :-

(1)    The house was painted red by them. (Passive)
       They painted the house red. (Active)
(2)    We shall be blamed by everyone.(Passive)
       Everyone will blame us .(Active)
(3)    The harvest is gathered by the farmer.(Passive)
      The farmer gathers the harvest. (Active)
(4)    It was time the watch to be repaired .(Passive)
      It was time to repair the watch. (Active)
(5)    You are ordered to be quiet. (Passive)
       Be quiet.(Active)
(6)    Let a movie be watched by us.(Passive)
       Let us watch a movie.(Active)
(7)    A red alert has been sounded in the city.(Passive)
      The police has sounded a red alert in the city.(Active)
(8)    By whom was the metro rail project inaugurate ? (Passive)
      Who inaugurate the metro rail project?(Active)
(9)    Are the attendance rules being relaxed ?(Passive)
      Are the college authorities relaxing the attendance rules ?(Active)
(10)  Nothing can be achieved without hard work.(Passive)
      Try yourself.


2 comments:

  1. Sugar is sweet when it is tasted.
    Who wants to see a fat boy eating bananas?

    ReplyDelete
  2. Last sentence answer
    We can achieve nothing without hard work.

    ReplyDelete

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