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Monday, July 29, 2013

Imp. English Essays For Highschool Students (std. 11 to 12) Gujarat

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Smoking
       Smoking has become very common and fashionable, especially among young boys. This habit usually begins at school when boys try to experiment with every new thing that they can lay their hands on.

      Despite the warnings given by doctors about the ill-effects of smoking, people continue to smoke. Smokers are addicted to it, and even if they want to, they cannot refrain from picking up a cigar or cigarette and puffing away. Some youngsters smoke for the sake of society and some feel that would make them appear liberated and broadminded.

      In the beginning, a teenager may take a few puffs from his friend's cigarette; then comes a time when it becomes an indispensable part of his life. Several puffs lead to the formation of a habit. Soon smoking begins to affect the health of the smoker. He becomes a chain-smoker. This smoke is toxic and the nicotine in the cigarette is known to cause cancer. It is ironic that despite the fact that every smoker is aware of the ill effects of smoking, he does not give it up.

      Tobacco companies are doing very well all over the world. Every packet of cigars or cigarettes has a warning inscribed in it: cigarette smoking is injurious to health." Yet the smoker never reads this warning and even if he reads it he never pays heed to it.

      The government raises the price of tobacco every year. This is usually done to discourage people from smoking. Yet smokers continue to be slaves of this habit and often spend a substantial part of their earnings on cigarettes. Cigarette advertisements lure people into smoking and most active smokers cause a great deal of harm to passive smokers as well. Smokers force the members of their family to bear the ill effects of the smoke that they exhale. Smoking can be stopped by a strong will power and every person has the capacity to give it up once he sets his mind at doing so.


Dowry System
      Our country India, the land of Gods, is respected in the world for her mythological culture. The mythological thinking, the deep belief in almighty and religious nature has made the Indians well cultured. But, sadly there are some of the stained systems in our country which are the black spots in our image.

      Dowry system is one of those much discussed systems. Although it is one of the most hated systems surprisingly it is growing day by day. Now- a-days this problem has created a lot of hue and cry in our country. This increasing system is a growing injustice to our society and morals. It should be immediately stopped.

      Marriage is one of the most sacred and holy ceremonies in our society. But the horror of the dowry system has made this ceremony one of the feared institutions. In ancient Indian society there was no question of the dowry in marriages. It was considered to be a sin.

      The bride-groom was voluntarily presented with some useful gifts which were not demanded at all. In some cases bride's father was offered money to allow her to marry a young man. Because the bride was considered to be a virtuous arid the suitable one. But the whole situation has altered.

      Nobody bothers to approach a girl's parents for her marriage. The parents of the girl desperately move in search of a suitable groom for her now. They persuade the groom's parents and show them the temptation of money and dowry. Through these unfair means they get the consent of the groom's parents for his marriage.

      Thus begins the clandestine atmosphere of dowry. The groom's father continues to place a series of demands before the bride's father. He strongly asserts that these demands must be fulfilled before marriage. Otherwise he can never consent to his son's marriage. The demands include refrigerator, colour television, motor cycle or car, ornaments of pure gold of sizeable quantity, money and plots of land in the capital area. In some case bride grooms are demanding money for their education and for constructing buildings. Bride grooms are purchased, to some extent, like marketable commodity.

      Dowry system is an insult to our society. It reduces the position of both man and woman. Many educated men are demanding dowry. Thus dowry system is also an insult to our education and culture. Poor people cannot afford dowry. Many handsome and brilliant girls remain unmarried because they are poor.

      Even after marriage, some brides are tortured and forced to bring more and more dowry from their parents' house. If they fail, they are tortured and finally killed. The problem of dowry has reached the climax. There is no attempt for matching beauty with beauty, or brain for brain.

      Strict laws have been prescribed to check dowry system. But nobody looks at it. Rich people are giving heavy dowry to their daughters. They do not feel unhappy at such crime. Dowry system continues in spite of all steps to check it. However, it can be completely checked if the awareness against this system is created among the girls. If they vow not to marry greedy men, if they become economically self-dependent, then this ugly system will automatically disappear.


My school library

      A school without a library is like the sky without stars. It must have books on various subjects, newspapers, journals and magazines. Students, those especially who want to add to their knowledge, go to the library in their vacant periods and study. It adds to their knowledge.

      My school also has a big library. Every student applies for a card and gets it. The librarian issues books against the card. No student can keep a book for more than fourteen days. Defaulters are fined.

      On one side of the library hall there are long tables and benches. Students sit there and read newspapers, journals and magazines; some take down notes. Nobody is permitted to talk to disturb others. Every class has one library period once a week. Students go to the library in the period and study.

      The library also has reference and text books. These are meant for studying in the library only. The calm and quiet atmosphere of the library helps the students to work attentively.

      The school librarian is a trained and qualified person and well-experienced. He gives advice to students on the choice of books. He is an expert in his work. He understands his duty well and is of great help to students. We find him busy all the time. He advises students not to spoil books by scribbling in them or tearing off the pages.

      Books add a lot to our knowledge. These are our best friends.


Girls Education

Despite all tall claims by the government and nagging by voluntary organizations, a vast majority of the girls are yet illiterate in India. During the last four decades since independence, much is being done to emancipate women. Education of girls is one of the basic features of the plan. Many schools and colleges are founded for girls.

Even co-education has received considerable support from the public, and although orthodox parents still view the system of co-education with suspicion, a large number of families send their daughters to co-educational institutions. Female education is, indeed, receiving a great impetus and the advance made by our country in this direction during the last decade or so is considerable.

It is being increasingly recognized that educated wives and mothers are an asset to a nation and that neither expense nor effort should be spared to make female education popular and even compulsory. Being educated, they are working in banks, private firms, hospitals and government offices.

Education has led to their economic independence and equality with menfolk. They have now an honoured position in society and have secured their rights from the reluctant men but all this is confined chiefly to the urban areas. In rural areas most of the people are still against girls' education.

So much needs to be done yet. An intensive propaganda is necessary to popularize female education not only in the towns and cities where its value is already fully recognized but in villages where the education of girls is still in its infancy. There are many villages where school for girl does not exist.

Every village must have a girl' schools, or if that is not possible owing to lack of funds, parents should be persuaded to admit their daughters to boys' schools thus promoting co-education.

Furthermore, the extreme poverty of the Indian masses makes it imperative that education for girls should be free up to the matriculation standard. If facilities for female education are provided in every village, it will also be possible to make it compulsory.

Special legislation should then be enacted to deal with parents who neglect the education of their daughters. This compulsion would be essential in early stages because most villagers are still too ignorant to understand the value of education for girls.

It should not be forgotten, however, that the education given to girls ought to be strictly in accordance with their needs.

At present, practically no distinction exists between the education of boys and that of girls. The two sexes are taught the same subjects both at school and college and they have to appear in the same examinations. That is clearly absurd. We must not lose sight of the fact while boys have to be fitted for careers; girls have to be prepared primarily for their duties as wives and mothers.

It is true that many girls would like to take up various jobs like the boys, but even so the syllabi and courses of studies and the subjects for the two sexes should not be exactly the same.

Girls ought to receive a good general education. No matter what other subjects they are taught, cookery, music, painting and hygiene should receive special emphasis. Subjects like arithmetic, history, geography and science will no doubt be common to boys and girls. Girls should primarily be trained for domestic life and all that goes with it.

For we cannot escape the natural fact that the girls have one day to become wives and as a consequence mothers. Due emphasis should be laid on nursing, cooking, laundry, household accounts, etc. in the education of girls. They should be given lessons in child psychology.

Ample opportunities should exist for them to learn the arts of dancing, music and painting if they have the necessary aptitude. That being so, the nature of education that is given to them now must be such as to prove useful to them in their future capacity as wives and mothers.

No doubt certain girls show promise of growing into artists, writers, orators, politicians and so forth, others may prefer to follow such professions as doctoring, teaching and law and still others may like to become steno-typists, secretaries, business executives, receptionists, telephone operators, etc. But the majority of girls have naturally a distinct preference for a general education, after which they will enter matrimony and settle down in their homes.

So while all possible arrangements should exist in schools and colleges to encourage talent or a special aptitude for a particular profession, the average girl should be so educated and trained as to enable her to make home life happy, healthy and civilized.


Natural Calamities

      Floods, droughts and famines are also natural calamities like earthquakes and volcanoes which man has to face. However, there is a case of floods, drought and famines he is able to control them, diminish the danger and at times even completely eliminate them as in the case of famines.

      Floods are caused by three factors – 1. Cloud burst, 2. Monsoon depression and 3. Tropical cyclones. Of late, deforestation and soil erosion are also causing floods. India depends for its rain on both the monsoons, south-western and north-eastern. The south-west monsoons start in May and continue up to the end of September. The north-east monsoon starts in November and continues right up to the middle of January.

      Heavy rain caused an account of the three seasons referred to, result in the overflow of rivers. The major rivers that cause floods in India are the Ganges and its tributaries, the Brahmaputra and the Godavari. The problem has become severe now on account of deforestation and depositing of soils in the beds.

      When heavy rains fall in catchments areas, they lead to soil erosion and the fertile alluvial soil is washed off and deposited in the river beds. This, at time, helps some countries. For example, the deposit left by Nile has helped Egypt. But it is not so in case of all rivers either in India or in china. When floods occur they inundate low lying areas by the sides of the rivers and caused huge loss of life, crops and other properties.

      Cloud-bursts means highly concentrated rainfall in a particular area, which is far above normal. This usually happens in places like Rajasthan in India. Moreover, depressions occur both in the Bay of Bengal and in the Arabian Sea. They are more frequent in the Bay of Bengal. At least twenty depressions occur every year between May and September in different parts of the Bay of Bengal. These depressions results in heavy rains in coastal areas of Andgra Pradesh, Orissa, Bengal, Bihar and utter Pradesh. The depressions caused in the Arabian sea help rains in Gujarat, Rajasthan and the South Himalayan parts.

      However, with the construction of dams on almost all rivers, intensity of floods has been checked. The other rivers which are overflowing now are likely to be harnessed soon. Floods may not be a serious problem to us. The heavy deforestation is causing alarm. It has to be checked. Dams and canals linking all rivers in the county is a necessity. For example, a canal linking Ganges with Cauvery would solve this problem.

      The cyclones are more dangerous as they are combined with high speed winds. A cyclonic storm with the forming of an eye may take any direction. The high speed winds which start a cyclone cause more damage than the accompanying floods.

      The Orissa super-cyclone of 1999 was one of the worst cyclones to have hit India. It claimed more than 10,000 lives and shattered the lives of millions. Those who survived this cyclone felt that the dead were more fortunate, revealing the intensity of suffering of the survivors.

     Droughts are caused on account of scanty rainfall. This happens mostly on account of vagaries of monsoons which are not under our control. They also usually occur in rain shadow areas like Anantapur and Mahaboobmnagar districts of Andhra Pradesh and in some district in Maharashtra and Rajasthan. They also can be overcome by adopting scientific methods of conservation of soil and by constructing check dams, water level could be raised. This would help to avoid droughts.

     Recently research has developed better methods of agriculture even in drought prone areas. The ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics) established at Hyderabad is extending immense service in this direction. Hence we can confidently hope that drought no longer may threaten us.

      Nazture3 has its own ways. We should respect and safeguard the environment without polluting it and destroying it. Man with all his intelligence is able to safeguard himself against floods, but he is not able to produce, increase or reduce rainfall which causes the floods. Hence nature still remains our master.

Co-education

      Co-education, as the word denotes, means the education of boys and girls in the same schools and colleges. When both the sexes receive their education jointly, there is no need for separate institutions. This is obviously an advantage from the economic point of view since separate institutions and separate staffs for those institutions will entail greater expenditure.

      Co-education has many more important advantages. It enables the girls and boys to come into contact with, and learn to understand one another. They receive their lessons jointly; they play on the fields together; they participate in the extracurricular activities together, they go out on educational tours together; in short, they get real opportunities to know one another. When free contact between the sexes is allowed and encouraged, there can be no sex-suppression on either side.

      It is a psychological fact that the segregation of the sexes leads to many complexes. The age of puberty is crucial for both boys and girls, and if they get no chance to meet one another they are tormented by unhealthy, morbid thoughts.

     Segregation, therefore, does great harm to youth-both male and female. Among girls it often leads to hysteria and among lads it sometimes leads to vicious habits. Co-education prevents these dangers.

     The presence of girls in educational institutions has a refining effect on boys. Generally boys if left to themselves will show a tendency to indulge in vulgar talk and indecent jokes.

     Vulgarity, indeed, thrives among boys. If however, a group of students standing and chatting together includes a few girls, the boys will take care not to use any vulgar expressions. Boys will thus steadily develop a habit of talking decently and behaving in a gentlemanly manner.

     The mutual understanding engendered by co-education also leads to recognition by men of the desirability of giving to women a high status in social life. Hitherto men have been only too ready to oppose any rights or privileges being conceded to women, but this opposition is mainly based upon an ignorance of the latent potentialities of the women. Co-education dispels this by affording men first-hand knowledge of the capacities and abilities of women.

      Another salutary effect of co-education is that it produces a healthy spirit of competition between boys and girls. Each sex makes efforts to excel the other. Both are therefore urged to a more fruitful intellectual exertion than is the case in separate institutions for boys and girls.

     But co-education is not an unmixed blessing, and its drawbacks should be clearly recognised and guarded against. The system has been bitterly criticized by many educationists.

     In the first place, men find it difficult to concentrate upon studies in the presence of women. The temptation to look at a pretty face is always irresistible for a man, whatever his age. In youth this temptation is all the more stronger. It is too much, therefore, to expect boys to attend wholeheartedly to their lessons when a number of attractive girls are sitting by their side in the class room.

     Again, there is a real danger that the free inter-mixing of the sexes at the age of puberty may lead to sexual misconduct. Boys will aim at entangling girls, and girls may become the willing victims of unscrupulous boys. This sort of thing, besides being undesirable and improper in itself, has an adverse effect upon the discipline of an institution.

     The needs of women are different from those of men. The same curriculum does not suit both the sexes. Boys and girls should not, therefore, be given exactly the same sort of education. If the lists of subjects suitable for study by the two sexes are compared, the number of subjects common to the two lists may appear few.

    But it would be a waste of effort to admit boys and girls to the same college and then to teach them separately on account of the differences are based on the belief that there are wide differences between the mental constitutions of the two sexes. Girls tend to be more interested in their immediate surroundings, in what are pretty and ornamental, and boys in what is more remote from them, in what is useful, in what is general and what is abstract.

    Co-education in India has made considerable progress. It has already been introduced in most colleges. The number of girls in co-educational institutions now-a-days is as large as that of boys.


Examinations

      Examinations are the bug-bear of every student. They pose a terrible ordeal before the prospective examinees. They strike the heart of every one with awe. Christ prayed to God rightly that he 'could be saved from examination, but He was put up to the test quite often. Students find themselves in a similar predicament. They pray to be saved from the curse of examinations. They descend like-ghosts over them. The ghosts of examinations devour them, drain their vitality and strength, and reduce them to mere skeletons. The 'Examination-fever' causes the students much physical and mental torture.

      Our modern examination system is highly defective. One of its worst defects is the artificial and illogical aspect of the mode of testing the student's knowledge. Our examinations are conducted mechanically. There is no emphasis on the creative impulse or individual initiative of the student. A parrot-like vibration of crammed up knowledge is to decide the issue whether a student is fit to adjust himself to the demands of his time or sot. The result is that our universities are producing graduates like pins, coming out of a pin-producing machine.

     The mats purpose of education anywhere is to help students develop to the best of their ability and find a suitable and satisfying vocation. Examinations are primarily a means of judging how far that purpose has been served. They thus occupy a very important place in any system of education. In a country like India where a degree is valued more as a passport to a job than as evidence of academic attainments, they acquire added importance.

    The most valid point made against the prevailing examination system is that however competent as examiner may be, it is hardly possible for him to judge more than a year work of a student in a few inmates. It is also wrong that the fate of a candidate should be decided in an all comprehensive examination extending over a nerve-racking week or fortnight. Examinations at present are at best a test of memory only, and there is a technique of making the grade in them. Those who have mastered that technique secure good marks even without any preparation or deep knowledge. After all the aim is just to secure paper qualifications which should enable one to stand in the queue for a job.

      Our examinations have an entirely different orientation. They are mostly crude essay-type memory tests. There is in them a premium on parrot-like memorization at the cost of reason and intelligence. Even in the highest examinations it is subject-centered rote-learning which counts. Original thinking is at a discount. Instead of being encouraged to think for himself, the student is often punished for it. A candidate taking an examination in English Literature is safe as long as he confines himself to quoting famous critics. But as soon as he ventures to express his own opinion, he is on dangerous ground. Chances are that the examiner who is himself incapable of original thinking and has all his life taken pride in being able to quote a hundred critics from memory will treat the candidate's attempt as a peace of sheer arrogance and penalize him for it.

     The mischief does not end there. After the candidate has answered the question papers, he is at the mercy of the examiner. The examiner's predilections can also cause distortions and play havoc with a student's career. After all the examiner too is a human being and as fallible as anyone else. But the mistakes he makes are costly. They can cause acute mental agony to candidates on whom he delivers wrong judgment. How unreliable this method of testing a candidate's ability can be, has been amply demonstrated time and again.

      If examinations today have become unwieldy, our universities cannot escape a major share of the blame for this state of affairs. Whether for lack of will, or under extraneous pressures, they have not been able to regulate admissions. Most of them have become examining bodies’ rafter then seats of learning. Every year they collect huge amounts by way of examinations fees and then conduct indifferently organized examinations.

      The system discourages industry. It blunts the sharpness of intellect. Many hold that it is as impediment to good education. It is nothing but a feat of memory. Those who cannot manage to put up a nice show of learning have to go down. Leacock rightly said once "Parrots would pass examinations of our time better than men. It is the one who has a sharp memory that mil make the highest score, though he may dear forget everything just the following morning".

     'Though the examination system suffers from the glaring defects painted out above, if cannot be denied that there is no better alternative to it. Examinations are indispensable. In some form or the other, the system of examination must exist; otherwise the student will lack incentive to work. It keeps alive the spirit of rivalry and healthy competition in the heart of examinees. "It is a milestone on the road to knowledge". So long as the system is not replaced by a better one, it must be there. What is needed is constructive criticism to build up a better system.

    An examination should not be looked upon as a means of a university. It should primarily be a test to determine whether a candidate has earned the right to belong to its learned fellowship. There is an urgent need for university administrations to change their outlook in this respect. There can be no two opinions about the urgent need for reform in our examination system.

    Seeing all this, educationists have been feeling the need for reforming the system of examinations to turn them into more realistic tests of students' work and performance. In 1958, a team of America experts visited this country and through the National Council of Educational Research and Training and the State Bureau of Educational and Psychological Research initiated a scheme for training evaluation officers and preparing testing material. But all that made no impact on our examination system and all the defects it had continued to persist.

     There are some basic points which need to be kept in view. Examination reform is inseparably linked with reform of the educational system as a whole. It can be effectively undertaken only after the curricula and the methods of teaching have been suitably improved to make them serve the real purpose of education. The Government has initiated the New Education Policy which provides for de-linking jobs from degrees and even eases the rigors of the examination system.

    But this is' not all that can be done. The universities have to adopt other measures to improve their technique of admission and examination. The student must be allowed to choose a vocation of his choice and examinations, though necessarily tests of knowledge and skill should not impede his onward march. Not simply the theoretical examination, but extra-curricular activities also should also count towards the total assessment of a student's merit.

Female Foeticide

      For many decades in Indian society girl child is considered as a curse for the society. Current sex ratio as per census 2001 was 927 to 1000 boys, which indeed is matter to think about. Sex determination tests are performed all over the country and it’s sad that the business has grown to 1000 crores.

     The origin of sex determination tests was commenced with the arrival of ultrasound techniques in the early 1990’s.Government supported these activities in order to control the population growth, as there was a tendency of Indian families to continuously produce children until a male child is produced. Although government tried to put end to this practice in 2003 but the laws were poorly implemented

    The trend of abortions and sex determination is common not only in villages but its also prevalent in the upper strata of the society. Killing of a baby girl before her birth is an offence. Doctors are not allowed to perform the sex determination tests and in case they are found guilty they can be send to jail and there licence can be seized.

     It is one of the major concerns for our Indian society. Awareness is one of the major weapons that will help in this field. Girls are not curse to the society they are equal to boys in every respect. We, as Indian citizen need to stress upon the individual awareness.
Surgical operations can also be used for the termination of pregnancies in women particulary after eight weeks of conception. Such surgical termination of pregnancy (or abortion) is allowed by law only in certain circumstances where the doctors decide that continuance of pregnancy can affect the health of mother or of unborn child gravely.

     Some people, however, misuse the technique of surgical termination of pregnancy for ulterior motive to get rid of female foetus (or unborn girl child). In order to have a male child (son), some misguided people in our country get the sex of their unborn child determined by ultrasound technique (though it is illegal to do so), and if it is a female foetus, they get it removed by surgery. This killing of the unborn girl child is called female foeticide. Female foeticide is reducing the number of girls drastically in some societies of our country.

     For a healthy society, the male-female sex ratio must be maintained at almost the same level. Due to reckless female foeticide, the male-female child sex ratio is declining at an alarming rate in some sections of our society.

      This must be stopped immediately. Female foeticide is a matter of shame for the couples who go for it and also for the doctors who perform such surgical abortions (or rather murder the unborn girl child) for earning some quick money! Let us not forget that our mother is a female, our sister is a female, and our wife is also a female. Then why not have a female as our daughter? Remember, daughters are no less than sons.


Note: All the above essays are collected from various sites. I am thankful to all of them.


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