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Thursday, September 11, 2014

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (પ્રત્યક્ષ કથન - પરોક્ષ કથન)


Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (પ્રત્યક્ષ કથન અને પરોક્ષ કથન)

Direct Speech (પ્રત્યક્ષ કથન): પરસ્પર બે વ્યક્તિ વચ્ચે થયેલી વાતચીતને એમના એમ, કોઈપણ ફેરફાર કર્યા વિના ડબલ અવતરણચિહ્નમાં રજુ કરવામાં આવે તેને પ્રત્યક્ષ કથન કહે છે.
Indirect Speech (પરોક્ષ કથન): પરસ્પર બે વ્યક્તિ વચ્ચે થયેલી વાતચીતને અન્ય ત્રીજી વ્યક્તિ પોતાના શબ્દોમાં, ફેરફાર કરીને રજુ કરે તેને પરોક્ષ કથન કહે છે.

Direct Speech: Sanjay said to Sejal: “I will give you a gift tomorrow.”
    Indirect speech: Sanjay told Sejal that he would give her a gift the next day.

સૌપ્રથમ તો Direct Speechમાં આવતા પ્રત્યેક ભાગને ઓળખવા જરૂરી છે.
Reporter/Speaker (બોલનાર): Sanjay
Reporting Verb (બોલાયેલું ક્રિયાપદ): Said to
Listener (સાંભળનાર): Sejal
Reported speech (બોલાયેલું વાક્ય): I will give you a gift tomorrow.

Rules to Change Indirect Speech from Direct Speech (પ્રત્યક્ષ કથનમાંથી પરોક્ષ કથનમાં ફેરવવાના નિયમો):
(1)             Changes in Pronoun (સર્વનામમાં થતાં ફેરફાર)
(2)            Changes in Tenses (કાળમાં થતાં ફેરફાર)
(3)            Changes in Time and Place Showing Words (સમય અને સ્થળસૂચક શબ્દોમાં થતાં ફેરફાર):



(1)                   Changes in Pronoun (સર્વનામમાં થતાં ફેરફાર):

વિભક્તિ
વચન
પુરુષ
કર્તા વિભક્તિ
કર્મ વિભક્તિ
સંબધક વિભક્તિ
ભારદર્શક વિભક્તિ
એ.વ.
બ.વ.
એ.વ.
બ.વ.
એ.વ.
બ.વ.
એ.વ.
બ.વ.
પ્રથમ પુરુષ
(બોલનાર)
I
We
Me
Us
My/
Mine
Our/
Ours
Myself
Ourselves
બીજો પુરુષ
(સાંભળનાર)

You
You
You
You
Your/
Yours
Your/
Yours
Yourself
Yourselves
ત્રીજો પુરુષ
(અન્ય વ્યક્તિ)
He
She
It
They
Him
Her
It
Them
His
Her/
Hers
Its
Their/
Theirs
Himself
Herself
Itself
Themselves

બોલાયેલા વાક્યમાં પ્રથમ પુરુષનાં સર્વનામ બોલનાર વ્યક્તિનાં પુરુષ અને લિંગ પ્રમાણે બદલાય છે. બીજાપુરુષનાં સર્વનામ સાંભળનાર વ્યક્તિનાં પુરુષ અને લિંગ પ્રમાણે બદલાય છે. ત્રીજા પુરુષનાં સર્વનામમાં કંઈ ફેરફાર થતો નથી

.


(2)                   Changes in Tenses (કાળમાં થતાં ફેરફાર):




Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
am, is ,are
was, were
do, does
did
have, has
had
can
could
may
might
shall
should/would
will
would
must
must
used to
used to
ought to
ought to
simple present tense (play)
simple past tense (played)
continuous present tense (am/is/are playing)
continuous past tense (was/were playing)
perfect present tense (have/has played)
perfect past tense (had played)
continuous perfect present tense (have/has played)
continuous perfect past tense (had played)
simple past tense (played)
perfect past tense (had played) (/Same)
continuous past tense (was/were playing)
perfect past tense (had played) (/Same)
perfect past tense (had played)
perfect past tense (had played)

બોલાયેલું ક્રિયાપદ સાદા ભૂતકાળમાં હોય તો બોલાયેલા વાક્યમાં ઉપર મુજબ કાળમાં ફેરફાર થાય છે, પણ બોલાયેલું ક્રિયાપદ સાદા વર્તમાનકાળ કે સાદા  ભવિષ્યકાળમાં હોય તો બોલાયેલા વાક્યમાં કંઈપણ ફેરફાર થતો નથી. (Say – say, Says – says, Said – said, Will say – will say પણ Say to –tell, Says to – tells, Said to – told, Will say to – Will tell)


(3)                   Changes in Time and Place Showing Words (સમય અને સ્થળસૂચક શબ્દોમાં થતાં ફેરફાર):


Direct Speech
Indirect Speech
This
That
These
Those
Here
There
Now/Just/Just now/Yet
Then
Thus
So/In this way
Ago
Before
Today
That day
Tonight
That night
Yesterday
The previous day or The day before
Tomorrow
The following/next day or The day after
Last
The previous
Next
The following
Come
Go/Come - આવવાનો અર્થ
Hence
Thence
Such
That
Hither
Thither
 So far
Till that time



 General Rules to Change Indirect Speech from Direct Speech (પ્રત્યક્ષ કથનમાંથી પરોક્ષ કથનમાં ફેરવવાના સામાન્ય નિયમો):
·         Direct speechમાંથી અલ્પવિરામ (,) અને ડબલ અવતરણચિહ્ન (“”) કાઢી નાખવાં.
·         બે વાક્યોને જોડવા યોગ્ય સંયોજક મુકવું.
·         વાકયના અંતે પૂર્ણવિરામ મુકવું.
·         સર્વનામ, કાળ (Said to ભૂતકાળમાં હોય તો), સમય અને સ્થળસૂચક શબ્દોમાં ફેરફાર કરવાં.
·         જે વાક્ય કે ઉપવાક્ય સનાતન સત્ય, કહેવત કે વૈજ્ઞાનિક હકીકત હોય તો બોલાયેલા વાક્યમાં કંઈપણ ફેરફાર થતો નથી.
Rules to change Direct Speech to Indirect Speech of various kinds of sentences: વિવિધ વાક્યના પ્રકાર પ્રમાણે પ્રત્યક્ષ કથનમાંથી પરોક્ષ કથનમાં ફેરવવાના નિયમો





Kinds of Sentences
Said to
Conjunction
Other Note/Change
Assertive sentence
(વિધાનવાક્ય)
that/
added/
replied /answered
informed/remarked
that
·  બોલનાર + યોગ્ય ક્રિયાપદ + સાંભળનાર + બોલાયેલું વાક્ય (કર્તા + ક્રિયાપદ + કર્મ + અ.શ.)
Interrogative sentence
(પ્રશ્નાર્થવાક્ય)
asked/
inquired
If/Whether

Wh’ word- how
·   સૌપ્રથમ કર્તા + ક્રિયાપદ + કર્મ + અ.શ.
·   Do/does/did કાઢી નાખવાં.
·  વાકયનાં અંતે પૂર્ણવિરામ મુકવું.
Imperative sentence
(આજ્ઞાર્થવાક્ય)
આજ્ઞાના ભાવ મુજબ
requested (વિનંતી)
advised (સલાહ)
ordered (આજ્ઞા)
commanded (હુકમ)
suggested (સૂચન)
instructed (સૂચના)
warned (ચેતવણી)
threatened (ધમકી)
   told (અસ્પષ્ટ ભાવ)
to  - હકાર વાક્ય
not to  - નકાર વાક્ય
·   to/not to + મુખ્ય ક્રિયાપદ

·  નકારવાક્યમાં do કાઢી નાખવું.
Sentence with Let
(Let વાક્ય)
suggested/
proposed
that

or

to let
·   that + કર્તા સર્વનામ + should + મુ.ક્રિ.પ. + બાકીનું આજ્ઞાર્થ વાક્ય
or
·   to let + કર્મ સર્વનામ + મુ.ક્રિ.પ. + બાકીનું આજ્ઞાર્થ
Exclamatory sentence
(ઉદ્ગારવાક્ય)
Exclaimed with ભાવ
joy (ખુશી)
sorrow (દુ:ખ)
surprise (આશ્વર્ય)
admiration (પ્રશંસા)
love (પ્રેમ)
disgust (અણગમો)
anger (ગુસ્સો)
hatred (નફરત)
·   exclaimed with પછી noun ના મુકવું હોય તો exclaimed પછી adverb મુકી શકાય. Exclaimed with joyfully/sorrowfully
that

·   ઉદ્ગારવાકયનું વિધાનવાક્ય બનાવવું.
·   What કે how જેવાં શબ્દો કાઢી નાખી very કે really જેવાં શબ્દો મુકવાં.
·   Hurrah, alas, oh, ah, wow, bravo જેવાં શબ્દો કાઢી નાખવાં.
·  સૌપ્રથમ કર્તા + ક્રિયાપદ + very/ really + વિશેષણ/ક્રિયા વિશેષણ + અ.શ.
Optative sentence
(શુભેચ્છાવાક્ય)
wished/prayed
that

·  That સંયોજક Mayથી શરૂ થતાં વાક્યમાં મુકવું. Good morning, Happy B’day, જેવાં વાક્યોમાં મુકવું નહીં.

Examples:
Assertive Sentences:

D.S.: Parthi says to her father, “I will not go to school”
I.S.:   Parthi tells her father that she will not go to school.

D.S.: Sejal said, “I am reading a book now.
I.S.:   Sejal said that she was reading a book then.

D.S.: Yogesh said: I do not like sweets.”
I.S.:   Yogesh said that he did not like sweets.

D.S.: The teacher said to the students, “The Sun rises in the east”
I.S.:   The teacher told the students that the sun rises in the east.

D.S.: Pihu said to her uncle, “ I go to school daily”
I.S.:   Pihu told her uncle that she went to school daily.

D.S.: Ved said to Sanjay, “I have completed my work just now.
I.S.:   Ved told Sanjay that he had completed his work then.

D.S.: Rakesh said, “I visited Mt.Abu last week, Shital.”
I.S.:   Rakesh told Shital that he had visited Mt. Abu the previous week.

D.S.: Varsha said, “Sir, I will complete my homework tomorrow.”
I.S.:   Varsha told sir that she would complete her homework tomorrow.

D.S.: Our parents said to us, “you may play outside,
I.S.:  Our parents told us that we might play outside.

Interrogative Sentences:

D.S.: Sejal said to Sanjay, “Are you reading a book now.
I.S.:   Sejal asked Sanjay if he was reading a book then.

D.S.: Ved said to Parthi, “Did you not complete her homework.”
I.S.:   Ved asked Parthi if she had not completed his work then.

D.S.: Rakesh said, “Shall we buy a house next month, Shital?”
I.S.:   Rakesh asked Shital if they would buy a house the following month.

D.S.: Manubhai said to his son, “Where have you kept my books?”
I.S.:  Manubhai asked his son where he had kept his books.

D.S.: Juhi said to Nisarg, “Why did you fly kites?”
I.S.: Juhi asked Nisarg why he had flown kites.

D.S.: Meet said to Chetana, “When will you give my gift?”
I.S.: Meet asked Chetana when she would give him a gift.

D.S.: The manager said, “Where can you park my car, Ramu?
I.S.: The manager asked Ramu where he could park his car.


Imperative Sentences:
D.S.: Sanjay said to Babu: “Give me your books, please.”
I.S.:  Sanjay requested Babu to give him his books.

D.S.: Sandip said to Dipak: “Take medicines daily.”
I.S.:  Sandip advised Dipak to take medicines daily.

D.S.: Bhavikbhai said to students: “Don’t talk in the class.”
I.S.:  Bhavikbhai instructed students not to talk in the class.

D.S.: The manager said to the peon: “Take me a glass of water.”
I.S.:  The manager ordered the peon to take him a glass of water.

D.S.: Geetaben said to his son: “Don’t go near that well.”
I.S.:  Geetaben warned his son not to go near that well.

Sentences with Let:
D.S.: Ved said to Parthi: Let us visit the science city.
I.S.:  Ved suggested Parthi that they should visit the science city.

D.S.: Devanshi said to Pihu: “Let me type this letter.”
I.S.:  Devanshi proposed to Pihu to let him type that letter.

D.S.: Mr. Oza said to the students: “Let’s go on a picnic”
I.S.: Mr. Oza suggested the students that they should go on a picnic.

Exclimatory Sentences:
D.S.: Jay said to Mit: “What a nice flower the rose is!”
I.S.:  Jay exclaimed with praise to Mit that the rose was a very nice flower.

D.S.: Ajay said to Daxa: “How tragic the accident is!”
I.S.:  Ajay exclaimed with sorrow to Daxa that the accident was really tragic.

D.S.: Gayatri said to Sarita: “What a scene!”
I.S.:  Gayatri exclaimed with joy to Sarita that it was a very nice scene.

D.S.: Sachin said to his friends: “Hurrah! We have won the match.”
I.S.:  Sachin exclaimed with joy to his friends that they had won the match.
D.S.: Kavya said to Maya: “Oh! You have passed the exam!”
I.S.:  Kavya exclaimed with surprise to Maya that she had passed the exam.

Optative  Sentences:
D.S.: Sanjaybhai said to his students: “May God bless you”
I.S.:  Sanjaybhai wished his students that God might bless them

D.S.: The students said: “Good morning, Sir.”
I.S.: The students wished good morning to sir.

D.S.: The minister said to the people: May the king live long.”
I.S.: The minister prayed that the king might live long.

D.S.: The students said: “Good morning, Sir.”
I.S.: The students wished good morning to sir.


D.S.: Mr. Sathwara said: “Good night, Mr. Patel.”
I.S.: Mr. Sathwara bade good night to Mr. Patel.


Rules to change Direct Speech to Indirect Speech of Dialogues: ફકરાનુંપ્રત્યક્ષ કથનમાંથી પરોક્ષ કથનમાં ફેરવવાના નિયમો:
Indirect Speech સળંગ ફકરામાં કરવું.
Indirect Speechમાં બોલનાર અને સાંભળનારમાં પ્રથમ વખત નામ મુકી પછી સર્વનામ મુકવું.
Direct Speech ના અધુરા વાક્યો પૂરા કરવાં.
એકના એક વ્યક્તિ બીજું વિધાનવાક્ય બોલે said to – added,  પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય બોલે તો said to – again asked અને જવાબ આપે તો replied/answered મુકવું.
Yes – replied positively (agreed) અને No – replied negatively (denied) મુકવું.
Dear, Sir, Madam, Hurrah, Oh, Alas, And, But જેવાં વધારાનાં શબ્દો દૂર કરવાં.
વાક્યના ભાવાર્થ પ્રમાણે વધુ શબ્દો મુકી શકાય.આમંત્રણ આપવાinvited, સ્વાગત કરવા દર્શાવવા (Hi, Hello)welcomed/greeted,  માહિતી આપવાinformed,  આભાર દર્શાવવાthanked,  ખાતરી કરવાંassured,   અભિનંદન પાઠવવાcongratulated, સમંતિ દર્શાવવા (O.K., All right) agreed

Examples:

(1)       “How tasty dish this is!” Said Pihu
“Do you like it?” asked Dev
“Yes, who prepared it?”
“My mother”
“Let me call your mother.”
“Why?”
“I want to thank her.”

Indirect Speech:           Pihu exclaimed with admiration to Dev that that dish was very tasty. Dev asked her if she liked it. She replied him positively and asked who had prepared it.  He replied her that his mother had prepared it. She suggested him that she should call his mother. He asked the reason (why she should call his mother.) She replied that she wanted to thank her.

(2)      Parthi: Hi! Dear, how are you?
Ved: I am fine. Thank you
Parthi: What are you doing now?
Ved: I am making a model plane.
Parthi: How nice! Will you give me a model plane?
Ved: No, But I will teach you how to make it.

Indirect Speech:           Parthi greeted Ved and asked how he was. Ved replied her that he was fine and thanked her. She asked him what he was doing then. He replied that he was making a model plane. She exclaimed with surprise that it was very nice and asked him if he would give her a model plane. He denied and added that he would teach her how to make it.





Practice
  • Turn the following sentences into Indirect Speech.
(1)       Rakesh said, “Hansa, Will you help me?”
(2)      “We cannot solve this puzzle.” Ajit said to Sanjay.
(3)      ‘Congratulations! You have come first in the exams,’ the principal said to me.
(4)      Ved’s father said, ‘We must not watch TV while having our dinner.’
(5)      ‘What an expensive car he drives!’ remarked Rahul’s neighbour.
(6)      ‘How well you speak German,’ his teammate remarked.
(7)      ‘Hurry up!’ said Jay’s mother. ‘The bus will be here in a minute.’
(8)      The policeman ordered the truck driver, ‘Show your licence.’
(9)      ‘You will have to surrender your passport,’ the officer said to the passenger.
(10) My grandfather said, ‘May you have a long life!’
(11)   Mr. Shah said to his colleague, ‘Will you please drop me at the airport?’
(12)  ‘Light travels in a straight line,’ the teacher explained.
(13)  ‘I saw an interesting film last evening,’ said my friend.
(14)  The caller asked, ‘May I speak with Sweety?’
(15)  ‘May I know who is on the line?’ her father enquired.
(16)  ‘Ouch! The bee stung me!’ the child said.
(17)  The girl said, ‘It gives me great pleasure to be here this evening.’
(18)  The man said, ‘I must go as soon as possible.’
(19)  She said, ‘I don’t want to see any of you; go away.’
(20)      The teacher says, ‘If you work hard, you will pass.’
(21)  He said, ‘I have won.’
(22)He said, ‘Let’s wait for her return.’
(23)He said, “I have got a toothache”.
(24)Manu said, “I am very busy now”.
(25)“Give me a cup of water,” he told her.


  • Turn the following dialogues into Indirect Speech.

Sahil: I have invited four of my friends for dinner today.
Radhika: Then I’ll invite my friends also.
Sahil: That will be a good idea.
Radhika: So, what should we have for dinner?
Sahel: Let us decide the menu now.

" Buy me some new saris, Papa" 
"Why ? You have got as many as thirty."
" They are all outdated now.I want some new one", Manisha insisted.
" I am also outdated. Would you like to have a new one ?"

"Did you see the picture last night ? It was a beautiful picture." Shilpa asked Alpesh.
"No I had a lot of home-work. Please help me with a sum if you know it Shilpa"said he.
"Sure.Oh! What an easy sum it is ! Could you not do it ?" she said.
"I have but you could not because you have got the wrong answer," laughed Alpesh.

“Can I see the manager ?" I asked
“Certainly." Replied the accountant without smiling.
“Are you the manager ?" I asked the man in his chamber.
“Yes, please come in and take your seat," he politely said
“Thank you very much," I said.

" It's our duty to help the poor," said the father.
" How would you like to help them father ?" asked the son.
" Not by giving alms but by giving them work," said the father.
" How fine the idea is ! But what work can we give them in a village?" asked the son.

" How do you find our new scheme of English Book ? Is it tougher ?" Jayesh asked Neha
"Not at all. Only the translation from Gujarati into English is definitely beyond my capacity", said Neha.
" What about the prose and poetry section ?"
" How nice ! I like all the lessons as well as poems," she said smilingly.

"Did you see the dead body under the truck?" asked the judge.
"No,sir. I saw it near the truck."said the witness.
"Can you say that the man was run over by the truck?"
"I can't, sir. It might be another truck.

Principal: Where is your mother?
Divya: I have no mother. She died five years back.
Principal: Who was the lady with whom you came in?
Divya: She is a stranger. She brought me for a treat.
Principal: You should not accept food from a stranger.


The teacher said,"Rakesh,why are you disturbing the class?"
"I didn't do anything,sir."
"Stand up you bloody boy,and get out. You are telling a lie."
"Why should I go ? You can do whatever you like."

"Can I see the manager?"I asked
"Certainly",replied the accountant without smiling.
"Are you the manager ?"I asked a man in his chamber.
"Yes, please come in and take your seat."he politely said.
"Thank you very much" I said.

"Let's visit Abu next week." said Sudha to her brother Sunil.
"What an excellent idea  We will enjoy the scenery there", said Sunil at once.
"Shall we go by bus or by train?" asked Sudha.
"By neither.Let's go by a car." said Sunil.

"What a fine dress you are wearing  Did you buy it from here?" Vipul asked Devyani
"No, I bought it from Bombay", she replied.
"How much did you pay for it, Madam ?"
"Oh  Only sixteen hundred rupees" she laughed.

"If he can't go, he'll stay here with you, Granny. You'll be here, won't you ?" Rusty asked.
"Not for ever. Only while I live."
"You won't go to England ?"
"No, I've grown up here. I'm like the trees. I've taken root. I won't be going away."

"I am going away tomorrow, Ratan?" said the post master.
"Where are you going ?"said she.
"I'm going home."
"I am not coming back."

"Do you play tennis ?" asked the Maharaja.
"Yes," said Uncle Ken, who remembered having played a bit of tennis when he was a school boy.
"In that case, the job's yours. I've been looking for a fourth player for a double match….By the way, were you at Cambridge ?"
"No, I was at Oxford," said Uncle Ken.

Aunt Jane: This house-it's very lovely-but doesn't it cost a great deal for rent ?
Jack :    Rent ? Oh, no we don't pay rent.
Aunt Jane: But, Jack if you don't pay rent, you'll get turned out.
Jack :    No, no, Aunt Jane. You misunderstood me. We don't pay rent because the house is ours.

Jack           : Aunt Jane ! Is anything the matter ? Would you like to lie down ?
Aunt Jane  : Lie down ? Do you suppose I'm going to trust myself in a bed that belongs to others ? No, I am going home.
Jill             : Oh, must you really go ?
Aunt Jane : I think I'd better.
Jack          :  I'll drive you to the station.

Jack  : Well, she's gone ! What a tartar ! Still, she did leave us a bit on account- how much was it ?
Jill    : Ten pounds.
Jack  : (With a whistle) : Phew ! That's great ! We can pay off the next two months on the car with that.
Jill    : I-I'm afraid we can't 

"How tired you look, Mummy !" said Niral.
"Yes, I am really tired, I need rest," said his Mother
"Did you iron all the clothes today ?"asked Niral.
"Yes, that's the reason why I feel tired a lot more" said she

"Did you like the film 'Tare Jamin Per' ?" Chintan asked Jignesh.
"Wow ! What a wonderful picture l The young kid has acted fantastically" replied he.
"I wish we all could accept the mentally retired and spastic children in the same way,"she said.
"Shall we see it again ? I'll pay for your ticket.Please come with me,"said he.

"What a nice child you are !" said the nurse to Atul, "Open your mouth,please"
"I will open it only if you do not put a tablet in it,"said Atul
"All right, all right, dear boy," said the nurse.
"One more condition, you will have to give me a chocolate in return," Atul said.

"How dirty you are Alpesh ! Did you play cricket ?" mother asked
"Yes mummy, is the food ready ? I am very hungry," said Alpesh.
"Your friend Dinesh called for you. Wash your hands and I shall serve you your dinner," said she.
"What have you prepared for dinner today ?" he asked.
"Your favourit dish, Dal-Bafle"


"What a beautiful movie it was !" said Uma.
"Are you talking about 'The Blue Lagoon'?"asked Anup.
"Yes"said she
"I, too, liked it very much" he said.

" What a fine dress you are wearing ! Did you buy it from here ?" Vipul asked Devyani
"No, I bought it from Bombay", she replied.
" How much did you pay for it, Madam ?"
" Oh l Only sixteen hundred rupees," she laughed.

"Do you know my younger brother, Darpan?" said Tejas to Pinal
"I know only the meaning of 'Darpan" said she with a smile.
"What a fantastic reply it is l" said he with a surprise.
"It's my nature to give a fantastic reply to a fantastic question." he said cooly.

"Sir what will you teach us today?" said the pupils eagerly.
"Reported speech" replied the teacher.
"Sir, is it more difficult than the degree of comparison?" they asked.
"Not at all. It's very easy" said he.
"How nice !" said they with joy.

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Easy English Gujarati Grammar