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Tuesday, January 21, 2014

Active voice (કર્તરી પ્રયોગ ) and Passive Voice (કર્મણી પ્રયોગ)

Active Voice - Passive Voice
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Voice કુલ બે પ્રકાર ના પ્રયોગો છે.
(1) Active voice અને (2) passive voice.
જેને ગુજરાતીમા અનુંક્રમે આપણે કર્તરી પ્રયોગ અને કર્મની પ્રયોગ તરીકે ઓળખીએ છીએ.

(1)Active voice (કર્તરી પ્રયોગ) :-

જેમાં ક્રિયાનો કરનાર કર્તા મુખ્ય હોય છે. અને કર્તા તથા કર્મ સ્વસ્થાને હોયતો તે વાક્યActive Voice મા છે તેમ કહી શકાય.

e.g  Sanjay plays chess.

(2) Passive Voice (કર્મની પ્રયોગ) :-

જેમાં કર્તા કરતા તેના કર્મને વિશેષ મહત્વ આપવામાં આવે છે.તેથી મૂળ કર્તાને કર્મને સ્થાને મુકવામાં આવેછે.આમ,કર્તા અને કર્મનું સ્થાન બદલાય છે. તેને Passive Voice મા વાક્ય છે તેમ કહી શકાય.

e.g. -> Chess is Played by Sanjay.

● Active Voice નુ passive Voice મા રુપન્તેર :-

Active Voice ની વાક્ય રચનાને Passive Voice માં રૂપાંતર કરતી વખતે કેટલાક ફેરફાર થાય છે.જેને આપણે ઉદાહરણ સાથે સમજીએ.

A.V: Ved        Watches      a movie
         કર્તા           ક્રિયાપદ           કર્મ

P.V: A movie     is watched by Ved
           કર્મ            is    ભૂતકૃદંત  by  કરતા
  
(‘કોણ’ પૂછવાથી જવાબ મળે તેકર્તા અને ‘શું’ તથા ‘કોને’ પૂછવાથી જવાબ મળેતે કર્મ)

આમ, વાક્યનું Active Voice માંથી Passive Voice મા રૂપાંતરકરતી વખતે નીચે પ્રમાણે  ફેરફાર થાય છે.
(1)    વાક્યમા કર્તાનુ સ્થાન કર્મ લે છે.
(2)    વાક્યમાં કર્મનુ સ્થાન કર્તા લે છે.
(3)    કાળપ્રમાણે યોગ્ય સહાયકારક ક્રિયાપદ મુકાય છે.
(4)    ક્રિયાપદનુ ભૂતકૃદંત મુકાય છે.
(5)    વાક્યના અંતે By દ્વારા કર્તા, કર્મનું સ્થાન લે છે.
(6)    જયારે કર્તા કર્મ બને અને કર્મ કર્તા બને છે ત્યારે એકવચન કે બહુવચનના નામ મુજબ સહાયકારક ક્રિયાપદ મુકાય છે.

I - by me        We - by us
You- by you  You - by you
He- by him
She- by her
It- by it           They- by them

Note :-
●       Voice  બદલતી વખતે વાક્યનો કાળ બદલાતો નથી.
●       Passive Voice મા વાક્યમાં ક્રિયાપદનુ ભૂતકૃદંત રૂપ જ વપરાય છે
●     ચાલુ ભવિષ્યકાળ (Future Continuous Tense) તથા તમામ ચાલુ પૂર્ણ કાળ (Perfect Continuous
Tense) ના વાક્યોનું Passive voice  થઈ શકે નહિ.
●    ચાલુંકાલ (Continuous Tense) ના Passive
Voice મા ક્રિયાપદના ભૂતકૃદંતના રૂપની સાથે being વપરાય છે.
●   Passive voice મા મોટા ભાગે ‘by’વપરાય છે, અને
ક્યારેક ‘in’પણ વપરાય છે.

(1) સાદોવર્તમાન કાળ (Simple Present Tense):-

Active voice:- ક્રિયાપદનુ મૂળરૂપ (ક્યારેક –S-કે –es પ્રત્યાય સાથે)

Passive voice:- is / am/ are/ + ક્રિયાપદનુ ભૂતકૃદંત રૂપ

e.g.-> He draws a picture.(Active)
           A picture is drawn by him. (Passive)
     
         -> We hold these meetings in the office.(Active)
            These meetings are held in the office.(Passive)
     
     ->    He drinks water. (Active)
             Water is drunk by him. (Passive)

● વાક્યમાં જયારે કર્તા અથવા કર્મના સ્થાને શબ્દના બદલે phrase હોય ત્યારે તે phrase ન સ્થાન પણ બદલાય છે.

e.g. -> Mr.Sanjay manages a big industrial empire. (Active)
      A big industrial empire is managed by Mr.Sanjay. (Passive)
    ->The entire staff of our office respects Mr.Sathwara(Active)
      Mr.Sathwara is respected by the entire staff of our office. (Passive)

● જયારે કોઈ વાક્યમા ક્રિયાપદ સાથે નામયોગી અવયવ (preposition) જોડાયેલ હોય તો તે વાક્ય નુ Passive મા રૂપાંતર કરતી વખતે preposition  મા કોઈ ફેરફાર થતો નથી.

e.g. -> We object to this proposal. (Active)
      This proposal is objected to by us. (Passive)
    ->A nurse looks after this little girl. (Active)
      This little girl is looked after by a nurse. (Passive)

· નકાર વાક્ય :-

● નકાર વાક્યનુ ‘Passive voice’ મા રૂપાંતર કરતી વખતે ‘do’ કે ‘does’ નીકળી જાય છે.અને સહાય કારક ક્રિયાપદ (am, is, are) સાથે ‘not’ મુકાય છે.

e.g. Sejal does not watch  movies. (Active)
    Movies are not watched by Sejal. (Passive)

·  પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :-

પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય બે પ્રકારના હોય છે,-
(1) Do/Does થી શરૂ થતાં
(2) પ્રશ્નાર્થ સુચક શબ્દથી શરૂ થતા. Do/Does વાળા પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્યનુ Passive voice મા રૂપાંતર કરતી વખતે Do/Does નીકળી જાય છે.અને તેને બદલે to be નુ યોગ્ય રૂપ (am, is, are) વાક્યની શરૂઆત મા મુકાય છે. What,
Why, When, How  વગેરે શબ્દો એમ જ રહે છે.

e.g.-> Do you play cricket ? (Active)
           Is cricket played by you ? (Passive)
    -> When does he complete the home wark? (Active)
          When is the home work completed by him ? (Passive)

(2) સાદો ભૂતકાળ (Simple Past Tense):-

Active Voice:- ક્રિયાપદનુ ભૂતકાળનુ રૂપ
Passive Voice:- was/ were + ક્રિયાપદનુ ભૂતકૃદંત રૂપ

e.g. -> The special commandos surrounded  the building. (Active)
      The building was surrounded by the special commandos. (Passive)
    ->I saw an accident yesterday. (Active)
      An accident was seen by me yesterday. (Passive)
    ->We broke a glass. (Active)
      A glass was broken by us. (Passive)

· નકાર વાક્ય :-

● નકાર વાક્યનુ ‘Passive Voice’ મા રૂપાંતર કરતી વખતે ‘did’ નીકળી જાય છે. અને સહાયકારક ક્રિયાપદ (was/
were) સાથે ‘not’ મુકાય છે.

e.g., Parthi did not complete the project. (Active)
    The project was not completed by Parthi. (Passive)

·  પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :-

->Did he write answers in the classroom ? (Active)
  Were the answers written by him in the classroom ? (Passive)

->Who broke the mirror ? (Active)
  By whom was the mirror broken ?(Passive)

(4) ચાલુવર્તમાન કાળ (Present Continuous Tense):-

Active Voice:  is/ am/ are + વર્તમાનકૃદંત
Passive Voice:  is/ am/ are + being + ભૂતકૃદંત
 
e.g., -> I am eating apples. (Active)
       Apples are being eaten by me. (Passive)
    -> Mr.Shah is teaching English. (Active)
       English is being taught by Mr.Sharma . (Passive)
    ->My mother is preparing food. (Active)
      Food is being prepared by my mother. (Passive)

· નકાર વાક્ય :-

e.g. ->I am not taking lunch. (Active)
     Lunch is not being taken by me. (Passive)
    ->Children are not playing cricket in garden. (Active)
      Cricket is not being played by children in garden. (Passive)

· પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :-

e.g.-> Is he playing cricket in the playground ? (Active)
      Is cricket being played by him in the playground ? (Passive)
    ->Where is he putting his book ? (Active)
      Where is his book being put by him ? (Passive)
     ->Who is teaching you now ? (Active)
       By whom are you being taught now ? (Passive)

(5)ચાલુ ભૂતકાળ (Past Continuous Tense) :-
    
Active voice :  was/ were + વર્તમાનકૃદંત
Passive voice :  was/ were + being + ભૂતકૃદંત
 
e.g. -> Rakesh was eating an apple. (Active)
       An apple was being eaten by Rakesh. (Passive)
    ->The Pupils were learning their lessons. (Active)
      Their lessons were being learnt by the pupils.(Passive)
     ->When I went to home , they were eating Panipuri. (Active)
       When I went to home Panipuri was being eaten. (Passive)

· નકાર વાક્ય :-
e.g.-> I was not preparing food, when he came. (Active)
      Food was not being prepard  by me when he came. (Passive)
    ->They were not drawing the picture. (Active)
      The picture was not being drawn by them. (Passive)

· પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :-

e.g., -> Was she drawing a picture then ? (Active)
       Was a picture being drawn by then. (Passive)
    ->What were you doing there ? (Active)
      What was being done by you there ? (Passive)

(6) પૂર્ણ વર્તમાનકાળ (Present Perfect Tense) :-

Active Voice:- has/ have + ભૂતકૃદંત
Passive voice:- has/ have + been + ભૂતકૃદંત

e.g.-> Bhairav has drawn this picture. (Active)
      This picture has been drawn by Bhairav. (Passive)
    ->I have finished my work now. (Active)
      My work has been finished now. (Passive)
    ->They have taken all the material. (Passive)

· નકાર વાક્ય :

e.g.-> You haven’t finished your work. (Active)
      You work hasn’t been finished by you. (Passive)
    -> Ved hasn’t completed homework.
       Homework hasn’t been completed by Smit.

· પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :-

e.g.-> Have the girls sung the prayers ?
      Have the prayers been sung by the girls ?
    ->Why have you brought only note books?
      Why have only note books been brought by you ?

· પૂર્ણ ભૂતકાળ (Past Perfect Tense) :-

Active voice: had + ભૂતકૃદંત
Passive voice: had + been + ભૂતકૃદંત

e.g.->My brother had taken breakfast before they sang . (Active)
     Breakfast had been taken by my brother before they sang. (Passive)
    ->He had sold the car before we reached. (Active)
     The car had been sold by him before we reached. (Passive)

· નકાર વાક્ય :

e.g. ->The girl had not sold the pane before I went there. (Active)
      The pen had not been sold by the girl before I went there. (Passive)
     ->He had not disclosed the secret before evening. (Active)
       The secret had not been disclosed by him before evening. (Passive)

· પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :

e.g. -> Had he warned the thief before firing the gun ? (Active)
      Had the thief been warned by him before firing the gun ? (Passive)
    ->Who had broken the glass when I went outside ? (Active)
      By whom had the glass been broken when I went outside ?

(8)પૂર્ણ ભવિષ્યકાળ (Future Perfect tense) :-

Active voice : will / shall + have + ભૂતકૃદંત
Passive voice : will / shall + have been + ભૂતકૃદંત

E.g. -> They will have finished the breakfast by eight. (Active)
      They breakfast will have been finished by eight. (Passive)
     ->We shall have withdrawn money from the bank by tomorrow. (Active)
       Money will have been withdrawn from the bank by tomorrow. (Passive)

· નકાર વાક્ય :-

E,g, -> We will haven’t finished the project by five. (Active)
      The project will have not been finished by us by five. (Passive)

· પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય :

e.g.->  Will you have signed all the letter before they close the office ? (Active)
       Will all the letters have been signed before the office is closed ? (Passive)

(9) Modal Auxiliaries :
(Can, Could, May, Might, Shall, Should, Will, Would etc.)

Simple Modal Auxiliaries:
(1) Active voice: Auxiliary +  ક્રિયાપદ નુ મૂળરૂપ
   Passive voice: Auxiliary + be + ભૂતકૃદંત

Perfect Modal Auxiliaries
(2) Active voice: Auxiliary +  have + ભૂતકૃદંત
   Passive voice: Auxiliary + have been + ભૂતકૃદંત

e.g. -> The government should deal with the corrupt officials strictly. (Active)
      The corrupt officials should be dealt with strictly. (Passive)
    -> Shital will have finished her home work before 6 O’clock. (Active)
       Shital’s homework will been finished by her before 6’Oclock. (Passive)
· નકાર વાક્ય :-

E.g,. -> He can not have made toys. (Active)
       Toys can not have been made by him. (Passive)
    -> Untill he work hard , he can not achieve success. (Active)
       Untill he work hard, success can not be achieve. (Passive)

· પ્રશ્નાર્થ વાક્ય:-

e.g. -> Should we give respect to that person ? (Active)
      Should that person be given respect by us? (Passive)
    ->Who must have built that beautiful building ? (Active)
      By whom must that beautiful building have been built ?(Passive)

(10) Infinitive :-
● Infinitive એટલે to સાથેનુક્રિયાપદ,
ઉદાહરણ તરીકે to err, to help, to complete, to walk વગેરે .
● ‘Adjective’કે ‘Adverb’ પછી infinitive વપરાય ત્યારે
તે  Adjective કે Adverb  ના અર્થ મા ક્રિયાપદ દ્વારા વધરો સૂચવે છે. અને તે Adjective કે Adverb ને qualify કરે છે.

e.g. I am too weak to walk.

અહિયા weak વિશેષણને ‘to walk’ qualify કરે છે.

આ જ પ્રમાણે ‘Noun’ પછી Infinitive વપરાય ત્યારે ‘Noun’ ના અર્થમાં વધારો સૂચવે છે.》તેને qualify કરે છે.

e.g., He has a project to complete.

અહિયા ‘Project’ નામને ‘to complet’ qualify કરે છે.

Infinitive ધરાવતા વાક્યનું Passive voice મા રૂપાંતર કરતા to be + ભૂતકૃદંત વપરાય છે.

e.g.-> I am to finish this work . (Active)
     This work is to be finished by me. (Passive)
    ->We have to finish this project today.(Active)
      This project his to be finished today. (Passive)
    ->Tea is too hot to drink.(Active)
      Tea is too hot to be drunk . (Passive)
    ->It is time to send the telegram to be sent .(Active)
      It is time the telegram to be sent . (Passive)
    ->I expect Mohan to do this. (Active)
      I expect this to be done by Mohan. (Passive)

(11)Imperative  Sentences :- (આજ્ઞારથ વાકયો)

Active voice:- ક્રિયાપદ નુ મૂળરૂપ
Passive Voice :-
Let + કર્મ + be + ભૂતકૃદંત
OR
કર્મ + should + be +ભૂતકૃદંત
OR
You are requested/ordered/advised + to + Sentence

e.g. ->Switch off the light. (Active)
     Let the light be switched off. (Passive)
     OR
     The light should be switched off. (Passive)
     OR
     You are requested to switch off the light. (Passive)

     Sell this old car off. (Active)
     Let this old car be sold off. (Passive)
     OR
     This old car should be sold off. (Passive)
     OR
     You are requested to sell this old car.

(12) Sentences beginning with ‘let’ :-

Active voice :- Let + ………+ ક્રિયાપદનુ મૂળરૂપ
Passive voice :- Let + ……….+ be + ભૂતકૃદંત

e.g.->Let Mr. Sanjay preside over the conference . (Active)
     Let the conference be presided over by Mr.yadav. (Passive)
    ->Let Srinath coach our fast bowlers. (Active)
     Let our fast bowlers be coached by srinath .(Passive)

(13) It is said

e.g. Sugar tastes sweet. (Active)
    It is said sugar tastes sweet. (Passive)

Passive Voice to Active Voice :-

(1)    The house was painted red by them. (Passive)
       They painted the house red. (Active)
(2)    We shall be blamed by everyone.(Passive)
       Everyone will blame us .(Active)
(3)    The harvest is gathered by the farmer.(Passive)
      The farmer gathers the harvest. (Active)
(4)    It was time the watch to be repaired .(Passive)
      It was time to repair the watch. (Active)
(5)    You are ordered to be quiet. (Passive)
       Be quiet.(Active)
(6)    Let a movie be watched by us.(Passive)
       Let us watch a movie.(Active)
(7)    A red alert has been sounded in the city.(Passive)
      The police has sounded a red alert in the city.(Active)
(8)    By whom was the metro rail project inaugurate ? (Passive)
      Who inaugurate the metro rail project?(Active)
(9)    Are the attendance rules being relaxed ?(Passive)
      Are the college authorities relaxing the attendance rules ?(Active)
(10)  Nothing can be achieved without hard work.(Passive)
      Try yourself.


Sunday, September 01, 2013

Tips for Students and Teachers

www.englishgujaratigrammar.in



Tips for Students to Develop Vocabulary:
·                     Read English newspapers and watch English news channels everyday.
·                     Read English books and magazines every week.
·                     Watch english movies and T.V. serials.
·                     If you find any unfamiliar word, look its meaning in the dictionary.
·                     Keep pocket dictionary with you. Always learn 25 to 30 new English words.
·                     Always remember new words. For that you should use new words in your routin language.
·                     If you have friends who also want to improve their vocabulary, then you can form a group and          share new words with each other. You can meet at regular intervals and measure your progress.
·                     Learn the root words. Root words are words from which words grow with the addition of prefixes and suffixes.
·                     You can also learn english vocabulary  through online computer programmes qnd softwares.
·                     Keep revising. While it is important to read and learn new words, it is equally important to revise what you have learnt.



How to Improve Grammar

 

Grammar is the set of rules that govern the usage of English language. A strong grasp of English grammar is therefore of the greatest importance.

 Most non-native English speakers make grammatical mistakes while speaking in English. Improving grammar takes time and effort but it is well worth it. Here are some tips which will help you improve English grammar

 

Understand the building blocks of grammar

 As a first step, it is important to know the different building blocks of grammar like nouns, pronouns, articles, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. The internet is full of resources about these and it is usually a good idea to understand them well.

 

Pay attention to sentence structures

 When you read an article or watch a movie, it is important to pay attention to how sentences are constructed. This practice helps ingrain different sentence structures and will help your spoken and written English.

 

Practice when you can

 This tip can never be overemphasized. As an English learner, it is extremely important for you to talk in English at any given opportunity. If you do not have partners to practise with, then try to speak in front of the mirror.

 

Grammar exercises will help you

 Try doing different grammar exercises and find out your weaknesses. These exercises are freely available on the internet. It is only after you are able to correctly assess your weaknesses that you will be able to rectify them.

 

Find a mentor

 Many learners have improved their grammar working with a mentor. A mentor could even be a friend who has a strong command over English grammar. You must speak only in English with your mentor and ask the mentor to point out your mistakes. This real time feedback is very beneficial in improving grammar.

 

Join a course

 Many students find that an English improvement course is the quickest way to improve English grammar.  If joining a classroom program is difficult, then an online course is a great option.



How to Learn English with the help of Gujarati Language

Learning a language is rewarding and useful. Native Gujarati speakers can learn English through a variety of sources, including tutors, films, books, newspapers and English-speaking friends. Once students have mastered some basic English skills, such as sentence structure, verbs and vocabulary, it is only a matter of practice before they can become fluent in the English language.

1. Look for an English-language class in your area. Many schools and colleges teach the English language, and there may be tutors available that can provide you with private lessons, if that fit in your budget.

2. Learn the English alphabet. The English alphabet, much like the Gujarati alphabet, consists of characters that represent vowels and consonants. While many Indian cities and towns still speak Gujarati, look out for English signage in your town and practice identifying the English letters.

3. Seek out Gujarati to English books such as" The Student's Modern Dictionary" by Desai and Mehta or the" Universal English-Gujarati Dictionary" by P.G. Deshpande. A Gujarati-English dictionary provides you with Gujarati to English translations.

4. Practice learning English with Gujarati computer-based software. There are many software programs available for Gujarati speakers who want to learn and practice their English skills, such as The Translation People.

5. Incorporate English into your life as much as possible. This includes reading English books and newspapers and watching English films. There are many English-written newspapers in India, such as the Times of India, Indian Express, Bilkul and many more that you can use to brush up on your English-speaking skills. This will incorporate English into your life in a real and meaningful way. Start with simple books containing pictures that can provide a context for the storyline. Build your way up to newspapers.

6. Watching English films with Gujarati subtitles or watching Gujarati films with English subtitles is a good way to become engaged in plot or story line and observe how the English language is used. The visual aspects of the film will provide context for the dialogue. This will improve your reading and listening skills in English. You'll also gather an understanding of common phrases and slang.

7. Watch popular sports games in India, such as cricket, with English commentary. This will help you stay interested in learning because you're watching something you understand and learning to think about it in English.

8. Engage in conversations with an English-speaking friend. This will familiarize you with real-life conversations. It will also speed up the learning process. If your learning is restricted to a one-hour session per day, for example, it will take a lot longer for you to learn compared to how quickly you can learn if you incorporate English into your daily life. Plan a casual outing with your English-speaking friend so you can learn how to converse in different situations.

9. Use your English/Gujarati dictionary to expand your vocabulary. Once you have a grasp of sentence structure and verbs, learning vocabulary is just a matter of memorization and practice. Try to learn new vocabulary words every day and incorporate them into English conversations.

10. Record your conversations so you can hear how your voice sounds when speaking English. Compare your pronunciation to that of native English speakers. Correct yourself and practice the words that you experience difficulty pronouncing.

 

Exercise for Word Formation

www.englishgujaratigrammar.in
• Fill in the blanks using the appropriate form of words given in the brackets.
(1) It was the most ______ experience. (Humiliation)
(2) She has a ______ mind (calculate)
(3) There must be ______ in one's nature. (good)
(4) This man is ______. He will not help you. (noble)
(5) You should ______ this items. (class)
(6) I like my Gujarat which is ______ (vibrate)
(7) Nothing is more ______ than your deeds. (example)
(8) He is ______ . He can't do this. (confident)
(9) He has a ______ nature. (possess)
(10) He was ______ . He couldn't think clearly. (gloom)
(11) In those days there was a ______ riot. (community)
(12) There was ______ in his speech. (sharp)
(13) The ants are generally ______ (miser)
(14) He was playing a ______ game (defend)
(15) ______ exam will be given tomorrow. (compete)
(16) What ______ him so oftenly ? (fury)
(17) There was a bomb ______ near the station. (Explode)
(18) He ______ his head and entered the church. (low)
(19) Wasps ______ Nehru in the jail. (terror)
(20) He will ______ your statement. (false)
(21) I noticed ______ in the administrator. (strict)
(22) I am tired of this bird's ______ call (persist)
(23) So many patriots gave ______ for the nation. (Martyr)
(24) ______ is a virtue. (forgive)
(25) There is no ______ of the guest's arrival. (certain)
(26) ______ of this land is wonderful. (fertile)
(27) ______ in living creatures is sure. (Mortal)
(28) Will you tell me his ______ ? (offend)
(29) ______ will be given to you. (prefer)
(30) You will have to prove your______ (innocent)
(31) Seeing your ______, I don't trust you. (neglect)
(32) There should not be ______ in any letter. (correct)
(33) He is tired of ______ (lonely)
(34) ______ tribute was given to the dead. (flower)
(35) I was sorry knowing his ______ (success)
(36) He praised my ______ (obey)
(37) He wanted ______ the piece into two. (half)
(38) He was ______ to talk with that man. (repulsion)
(39) There are some ______ points about any country. (admire)
(40) He will get his licence______ (new)
(41) He is ______. He will not support you. (co-operate)
(42) We should ______ with others to win the grace of God. (sympathy)
(43) This clay lacks ______ quality. (adhesion)
(44) Kalam's Sir was ______ even if his wife denied to serve Kalam. (perturbed)
(45) Kalam's one of the friends accepted ______ (priest)
(46) Where do they ______ ? Find out. (various)
(47) He was restless because of some ______ changes (environment)
(48) He was ______ to accept the offer. (desire)
(49) Pl. give him my sweet ______ (remember)
(50) He wanted ______ me (friend)
(51) He remained ______ on the beat (watch)
(52) Pity the nation that ______ the bully as hero. (claim)
(53) He is ______ Don't ask for any coin from him in the name of religion (religious)
(54) He is ______ . He is unable to take quick decision. (decision)
(55) ______ are punished sooner or later. (virtue)
(56) The end of the story is ______ (pathos)
(57) I have ______ it somewhere. I will find it out. (place)
(58) Nehru welcomed the ______ in a prison. (divert)
(59) Many ______ students get poor result. (attentive)
(60) There was a mute ______ on the boy's face. (accept)

Exercise for Function Words

www.englishgujaratigrammar.in
• Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with proper words from those given in the
brackets.
(1) Arpan walked on a rope ______ he were a good acrobat. (as, like, as if)
(2) Efficient ______ he was, he was not appointed. (though, however, as)
(3) ______ was I asked than I replied. (As soon as, no sooner, hardly)
(4) ______ he was confused, he was mute. (since, however, though)
(5) ______ his failing health, he was enthusiastic and zestful. (because of, despite, in order to)
(6) ______ the gust of wind could break the idol had not entered his mind. (what, that, as)
(7) ______ you think is not in your favour. (that, what, which)
(8) Don't envy ______ you may be happy. (so, so that, therefore)
(9) He couldn't think clearly as he was in ______ confusion. (little, a few, a little)
(10) He wants ______ a shirt as is cheap and having the quality. (same, such, that)
(11) He wants nothing ______ your grace (as, but, as)
(12) I believe in ______ you believe. (that, what, as)
(13) He completed his work earlier ______ he could leave the site earlier. (in order to, in order
that, inspite of)
(14) Deaf ______ he was, he attended the musical concert. (though, however, as)
(15) I want ______ boys to complete this work. It can't be done single handed. (few, a few, a
little)
(16) ______ you go, you will find people with certain problems. (where, wherever, whenever)
(17) See me ______ you are free. (where, when, how)
(18) ______ of the residents in this colony has a car. They have bicycles or scooters. (some, none,
all)
(19) He was in ______ confusion, he could not think clearly. (few, little, a little)
(20) He set motionless ______ he were innocent. (like, as, as if)
(21) He also acted ______ everybody did. (like, as, as if)
(22) Behave here ______ the rules and regulations. (in accordance with, because of, in order that)
(23) He was in ______ a plight ______ he couldn't decide what to do. (so-that, such-that, sameas)
(24) ______ darker the night is, the denser it is. (A, An, The)
(25) He has joined ______ N.C.C. (the, an, a)
(26) ______ you do, you won't have any gain. (what, whatever, however)
(27) He was ______ indecisive that he had to stop on every turning point. (such, so, as)
(28) This boy seems ______ small to be a soldier. (enough, too, though)
(29) Take deep breaths ______ you can overcome fear (in order to, in order that, owing to)
(30) His late arrival in the function was ______ the great confusion of traffic. (on account of, due
to, because of)
(31) ______ had he stood up to speak when every body started clapping. (No sooner, As soon
as, Scarcely)
(32) ______ he couldn't know the nature of clapping, he kept on speaking. (Though, since, Because)
(33) ______ have you sent the cheque to ? (Who, Whom, To Whom)
(34) He prefers Bio-chemistry ______ pharmacy. (than, to, and)
(35) ______ of them had self respect. They all behaved insensibly. (some, None, Each)
(36) He is firm in his decision. He will not give ______ his employer. (in, up, to)
(37) He translated the passage ______ making them know its meaning. (so, with a view to, in order
to)
(38) You can't move ______ you will. This is a prohibited area. (When, Where, Wherever)
(39) He was ______ confident that he declared himself a winner. (too, enough, so)
(40) The possibility ______ wind was responsible for a tear was remote. (as, that, when)
(41) He is dealing with everybody ______ honestly ______ sincerely. Everybody adores him. (neither...
nor, not only... but also, either .... or)
(42) They both were confused ______ of them could express any view. (either, neither, none)
(43) ______ under priviledged must be supported. (A, An, The)
(44) Ask ______ of the boys if he is interested in the visit. (each, all, some)
(45) Adamant ______ he was in the beginning, he had to submit when he was persuaded. (however,
as, though)
(46) He was ______ affluent not to live luxuriously. (so, too, enough)
(48) ______ may persuade me, I'll not favour him. (Who, Whomever, Whoever)
(49) Govinda glanced ______ the window to notice an intruder. (to, at, across)
(50) He would tolerate ______ begging. (inspite of, instead of, in addition to)

Exercise for Verb Forms

www.englishgujaratigrammar.in

• Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate forms of verbs given
in the brackets against each.
(1) A lady ______ money from the bank, reached the hospital. (withdraw)
(2) ______ the doctor not ______ in time, the patient would have died. (come)
(3) This assignment work ______ by the time you return from Surat. (will+Submit)
(4) Vraj ______ had he confessed his fault. (can + forgive)
(5) Some boys and girls ______ irregular for the last fifteen days. (be)
(6) You are advised ______ your car ______ in authorised workshops only. (have, service)
(7) The match ______ before we reached the stadium. (start)
(8) I came to know very late that my name ______ for the national scholarship. (send)
(9) They haven't ______ their tickets ______ yet. (have, book)
(10) Gandhiji ______ bath with cold water in winter when he was in the jail. (use, take)
(11) ______ all the voters ______ I would have been declared a winner. (vote)
(12) No sooner ______ a picture ______ than a dealer made a sensational bid. (display)
(13) Nobody had seen a culprit ______ to the court. (take)
(14) Think positively so that good impression ______ in an interview. (create)
(15) He was too smart ______ (cheat)
(16) What cannot be cured ______ (must + endure)
(17) Perform as you ______ (have, instruct)
(18) She came to know that her name ______ for the national scholarship. (send)
(19) The decision ______ likely ______ this evening. (be+take)
(20) Hardly ______ Govinda ______ mending the idol when his son interrupted him. (complete)
(21) ______ is believing (see)
(22) How long ______ your father ______ in this company ? (serve)
(23) He ______ me ______ beside him before he asked for money. (make, sit)
(24) By the time you leave this spot, so many persons ______ to see you. (will+come)
(25) You ______ nicely. Why did you not do so ? (can+behave)
(26) I saw the road ______ (resurface)
(27) While the experiment ______ in the lab, one of the students fainted. (make)
(28) I requested him to conclude yet he kept on ______ to justify himself. (shout)
(29) Had you taken a little interest in the debate you ______ later on. (will + enjoy)
(30) Why do you ______ your father ______ so many things this time also ? (get, purchase)
(31) The speech ______ over, there came resounding applause. (be)
(32) It is reading that ______ us ______. (make, think)
(33) You ______ me before you invested money with this bank. (should+ask)
(34) By the next week, this illegal construction ______ (will+demolish)
(35) Keep silence. An experiment ______ (explain)
(36) By tomorrow, these mangoes ______ (will+ripen)
(37) ______ a suspect ______ sternly, he would have admitted his crime. (ask)
(38) You ______ the compound ______ tomorrow for your mischief. (make + clean)
(39) ______ his role, he left the stage. (have + perform)
(40) Your office ______ already ______ You may shift the furniture. (renovate0
(41) Had you answered politely, your teacher ______ not ______ his temper. (will + lose)
(42) You are requested not ______ your work ______ here. (have + do)
(43) We ______ to remove poverty for years without making efforts in that direction. (have + consider)
(44) How long ______ you ______ here ? (be)
(45) Are you used to ______ the flowers ? (arrange)
(46) All these papers ______ before they were sent to board (verify)
(47) Why did your teacher not make you ______ ? (play)
(48) His name ______ , he stood up to receive the prize. (have, declare)
(49) After he ______ his licence with him, he locked the door. (keep)
(50) The class was silent because presence ______ (take)
(51) Why did you not ______ any sweets ______ before the guests arrived. (have, prepare)

Chart of All Tenses

Point
p5IMUL XaNM
A.V. STF"qwho
P.V. કર્મ What-by – whom
Examples
;FNM JT"DFGSF/
Simple Present Tense
always/ everyday, ever week, every year, sometimes, usually, generally, often, a seldom, at noon, at night, in the evening, mostly, ;tI ;GFTG
CSFZ      D]PlS|P /D]PlSP s/es
GSFZ      do/does not D]PlSP
5|`GFY"    Wh XaN + do /does + STF" +D]PlSP
Am/is/are + lS|P5P E}TS'NgT
- I write a letter.
- A letter is written by me.
- I don’t write a letter
- He speaks English?
- Does he speak English?

RF,] JT"DFG SF/
Present continuous Tense
Look, see, watch, hear, listen, run, hears keep, silence, stop, observe, now, nowadays, these days, this moment, at present at this moment.
am/ is/ are lS|P5N  ing
am/ is/ are + being + lS|P5PG]\ E}TS'NgT
- Rakesh is writing a letter.
- A letter is being written by Rakesh.
5}6" JT"DFG SF/
Present perfect Tense

Just, just now, ever, never, yet, still, already, recently, totally, completely, since, for, so far, by now
have/ has + lSP5PG]\ E}TS'NT
have/has+ been + lS|IF5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
- They have played chess.
- Heena has written a poem.
- A poem has been written by Heena.
RF,]5}6 JT"DFG SF/
Present perfect Continuous Tense
Since, for, since when, how long
have/ has + been + lS|P5NG]\ ing
GYLP
- They have been playing chess.
;FNM E}TSF/
Simple past Tense
Yesterday, ago, previous, las day/ week, oneday, once, before a week, in 1947, that year
CSFZ      lSP5NG]\ E}TSF/
GSFZ      did+not+D]PlSP
5|`GFY"  wh+did+STF"+D]PlSP
Did+STF" +D]PlSP
was/ were + lS|P5NG]\ E}TS'NtG
- I wrote a letter.
- A letter was written by me.
- I did not write a letter.
- Did I write a letter?

RF,] E}TSF/
Past Continuous Tense
When, while, as, then, at that time, at this time yesterday
was/ were  lS|P5NG[ ing
was/ were + being + lS|P5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
- Mr. Sanjay was teaching English.
- English was being taught by Mr. Sanjay.
5}6” E}TSF/
Past Perfect Tense
before, after, when, ago, if
had+ lSP5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
had+ been+ lS|P5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
They had finished it before I reached.
RF,] 5}6” E}TSF/
since, for, since when, how long
had+ been+ lS|P5NG]\ ing
GYLP
- They had been playing chess.
Simple Future Tense
tomorrow, the following, next day after tomorrow
shall/ will + D]bI lS|IF5N
shall/ will+ be+ lS|P5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
- I will send a message.
- A message will be sent by me.
Future Perfect Tense
by the end of ;DI ;]RS XaNM4
by the next, before the next, by 5.00 o’clock
shall/ will + have+ lS|P5PG]\ E]TS'NtG
shall/ will + have+ been+
lS|P5NG]\ E}TS'NtG
- I will have finished it by the end of this month.

;CFP lS|IF5N
Simple modal Auxi
can, could, may, might, shall, should will, would must, dare, ought
;PlS|P+ D]PlS|P
have+ lS|P5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
;CFPlS|IF5N + have+ been+ lS|IF5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
- I can speak English
- English can be spoken by me.
5}6" ;CF lS|IF5N
Perfect modal auxi
-If  STF"  had
- Had STF" V3
_ unless had
- guess, think, assume
;PlS|P+have+ lS|P5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
;CFPlS|IF5N + have+ been+ lS|IF5NG]\ E]TS'NtG
- If the doctor had come earlier, he could have saved the patient
Get
-
get G]\ SF/ D]HA ~5 + STF" + to JF/] lS|P5P
get G]\ SF/ ~5+ SD" + lS|P5PG]\ E]TS'NgT
- I got my peon to post the letter.
- I got the letter posted by my peon.
Have
-
Have G]\ SF/~5 + STF"  +to   lJGFG]\ lS|P5P
Have G]\ SF/~5 + SD""  + lS|P5PG]\ E]TS'NgT
- I had a driver driven my car
Make
-
Make G]\ SF/~5 + STF"  +to   lJGFG]\ lS|P5P
Make G]\ SF/~5 + STF"  +to   lJGFG]\ lS|P5P
- I make him stand in the class.
Used to
-
used to + D]bI lS|IF5N
used to be v3
- I used to wake up early.
to be used to
-
to be used to + lS|5G[ ing.
-
- He is used to writing in English.
Present participle
;F{ 5|YD BFPH
v BFPHP 5C[,F Preposition on, with, without, before, after when whole, busy
ALH] lS|IF5N
start, stop, see, find
lS|IF5NG[ ing
being +  lS|IF5NG]\ E]TS'NgT
- I watched him doing it.
- Seeing is belief.
PerfectParticiple
;F{ 5|YD BFPHP have+ lS|IF5N
Having + lS|P5NG]\ E]TS'NgT
Having+been+lS|P5G]\ E].S'
Having finished it, I went to school.
Infinitive
v5|YD lS|IF5N 5KL4 ALH] lS|IF5N
v BFPHP 5C[,F happy,ready, eager, enough, too
-it is/ was
to + D]PlS|P
to+be+ lS|5NG]\ E]TS'NgT
- I am happy to see it.
- I wanted to do it.